Friday, 6 May 2016

Anti-Aging Products: An Over View (Al02-2016)

Mustafa Hamido

Abstract

By exposing skin to environmental conditions in addition to some endogenous factors, a change in the skin structure occurs. Physiological and structural changes in the skin layers occur especially in the areas more exposed to the sunlight and radiation. These changes are known as the aging process. Two common aging processes are differentiated. Intrinsic aging process occurs due to time passing. Extrinsic aging process occurs due to environmental and life style reasons. These reasons include: repeated facial expression, smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet and photo-aging by exposure to sunlight. During the last two decades, anti-aging products have become so popular between people. Number of anti-aging ingredients have been developed and synthesized and a lot of products have been formulated and marketed either to slow down the aging process or to remove the wrinkles, pigmentation and other aging signs. Anti-aging functional ingredients are classified into groups. Each one of these groups has its own function, uses and characteristics. Some of them are found in nature and others are chemically synthesized in labs.

Introduction

Anti-aging products are growing rapidly globally especially in the countries witnesses booming in population growth. People who are between 50 years and 65 years old are the main target of these products. More than 8000 persons are added daily to the people above 65 years old. The skin care market is expected to be valued about 156 billion US dollars by 2021. Anti-aging products are ranked the second highest skin care products share market in 2014 with an approximate sales of 1.15 billion US dollars. The US market is the biggest market of the skin care products with an approximate sales of 2.8 million in 2014 (1).

Aging Process

By exposing skin to environmental conditions in addition to some endogenous factors, a change in the skin structure occurs. Physiological and structural changes in the skin layers occur especially in the areas more exposed to the sunlight and radiation. These changes are known as the aging process. Usually skin in young people is soft and smooth and by years it becomes less elastic, tougher, uneven and wrinkled. Two common aging processes are differentiated. Intrinsic aging process occurs due to time passing. This process is occurred due to collagen and elastin production become slowly and thus skin becomes less elastic and thinner than it should be. Cellular regeneration and exfoliation become slow too. Underlying fat is lost and skin sagging which start subtly in the 20’s become more noticeable later in life. Extrinsic aging process occurs due to environmental and life style reasons. These reasons include: repeated facial expression, smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet and photo-aging by exposure to sunlight. Photo-aging counts about 90% of the skin cosmetic associated problem (2).

Each of the two aging processes is characterized by distinctive signs. Intrinsically aged skin is smooth, thin, pale and finely wrinkled. These characteristics are results of number of reasons including decreasing collagen and elastin content which makes the skin less elastic and thin. The shrinkage of face muscles, decreasing of immune cells and the reduction of fat under the SC layer make the skin vulnerable and drier. Extrinsic aged skin is characterized by course wrinkled, hyper pigmented and fragile skin. It also can be characterized by visible blood vessels under the skin (3).

Anti-Aging Products

During the last two decades, anti-aging products have become so popular between people. Number of anti-aging ingredients have been developed and synthesized. A lot of products have been formulated and marketed either to slow down the aging process or to remove the wrinkles, pigmentation and other aging signs. These products can be classified either as drugs (Prescribed and OTC) or as cosmetics. FDA has put a rule to classify these products. Manufacturer claim about the use of the marketed product is an essential factor. Any product which is intended to clean, beautify, prompt attractiveness or even altering the appearance is classified as a cosmetic product. Drugs are used to diagnose, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease (4). Some products could be cosmetics and drugs in the same time as they are used to treat and change the appearance. Cosmecuticals is the term used to describe these products even though it has no legal meaning. The concentration of the anti-aging functional material can also determine the classification of the product. Products which contain Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHA) are classified as cosmetics if small concentration of these functional groups were used. Using these agent in high concentration will make these products drugs used mainly to treat acne, remove scars and some of these products are used as skin peelers. Some anti-aging materials are not used in any cosmetic product. Using them will automatically classify the product as a drug. Retinoid (Vitamin A) is an example of that (5).

Anti-Aging Functional Ingredients

Anti-aging functional agents are classified into groups. Each one of these groups has its own function, uses and characteristics. Some of them are found in nature and others are chemically synthesized in labs (6).  Some of these functional groups can be put under more than one class or category. An example of that, some botanical extracts can be put under antioxidant class. It has the botanical extracts characteristics and even they work as anti-oxidants (7). The anti-aging functional groups are classified into:

1.       Botanical extracts: They are very popular nowadays and widely used in anti-aging products. They are naturally sourced ingredients and have numerous effects. These effects includes: anti oxidation effect as coffee and pomegranate, photo protection as black tea and olive, smoothing, calming, anti-inflammatory effects such as chamomile and mushrooms, skin lightening such as blueberry and ginseng, skin tightening  such as peppermint  and witch hazel and emolliating effects such as jojoba and coconut extract. These natural ingredients are usually used in combination to reach to the maximum benefits from them.

2.       Antioxidants: these ingredients help in preventing and repairing the damage in the skin and encouraging cell growth. The most important role of antioxidants is suppressing the effect of free radicals in damaging the skin. Vitamin C and E are examples of the antioxidants which are widely used in cosmetic products. As mentioned above, some botanical extracts have the ant oxidation effect as pomegranate, green tea and coffee beans extracts.

3.       Peptides and proteins: they are very popular anti-aging ingredients nowadays.  They are used in topical and even in injectable preparations. They work on wrinkles by reducing their occurrence. They stimulate collagen production. They also thicken, smooth and protect skin. Collagen and elastin are the most common used.

4.       Hydroxy Acids (HAs):  they are natural organic carboxylic acids.  They include alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) such as lactic acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and citric acid (vitamin C which has antioxiadation effect). Beta hydroxyl acids (BHAs) and poly hydroxy acid (PHAs) are also used.

5.       Sunscreens are used as anti-aging products to prevent the extrinsic sunlight from changing the skin structure and protect it from pigmentation.

Conclusion

Products contain anti-aging ingredients have become very popular nowadays. They are ranked the second highest skin care products share market in 2014. Number of ingredients are used in anti-aging products. These agents play very important role in protecting skin from extrinsic and intrinsic aging causes. Some of these products are classified as drugs (prescribed and OTC) and other are classified as cosmetics. The claim used by manufacturer about the use of the product is essential to classify it according to FDA rules.

References

(1)    Statista. (2014). Anti-aging skin care sales in the United States from 2011 to 2015 (in billion U.S. dollars). [Online] Available: http://www.statista.com/statistics/312336/us-anti-aging-skin-care-sales/. Last accessed: 06/03/2016.

(2)    Mariobadescu.com. (Unknown). Causes of Aging Skin and Wrinkles. [Online] Available: mariobadescu.com/causes-of-aging#helpme. Last accessed: 27/02/2016.

(3)    Gabriella Baki, Kenneth S. Alexander. (2015). Introduction to Cosmetic Formulation and Technology. USA: Wiley. 248-260.

(4)    FDA. (2015). Wrinkle Treatments and Other Anti-aging Products. [Online] Available: http://www.fda.gov/Cosmetics/ProductsIngredients/Products/ucm388826.htm. Last accessed: 3/2/2016.

(5)    FDA. (2015). Alpha Hydroxy Acids. [Online] Available: http://www.fda.gov/Cosmetics/ProductsIngredients/Ingredients/ucm107940.htm. Last accessed: 27/02/2016.

(6)    Andrea Cheng. (2013). Best Anti-Aging Ingredients - Anti-Aging Beauty Ingredient. [Online] Available: http://www.webmd.com/healthy-beauty/features/best-anti-aging-tips. Last accessed: 2/3/2016.

(7)    Gabriella Baki, Kenneth S. Alexander. (2015). Introduction to Cosmetic Formulation and Technology. USA: Wiley. 248-260.

About Mustafa Hamido
Mustafa Hamido hold MSc degree in Pharmaceutical Analysis and BSc degree in Pharmacy.He works as a Development Manager at Alecos Cosmetics and Personal Care
This articles first appeared at Alecos.hamido.net


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